New Project funded: SHaKER (2022-2026)

A new coordinated project, composed by three subprojects led by fault2sha members of the Eastern Betics fautl2SHA-lab has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2021-124155NB-C31).

Project Title: SHaKER, Seismic Hazard Knowledge for Earthquake Resilience

IPs: José A. Álvarez Gómez, José J. Martínez Díaz (UCM, subproject model_SHaKER), Carolina Canora (UAM, subproject paleo_SHaKER) and Alejandra Staller (UPM, subproject Geo_SHaKER)

The main objective of the SHaKER project is to advance in the knowledge of the seismogenic processes of seismic sources with the final objective of improving urban resilience to seismic disasters. To achieve this, we delve into the characterization of seismogenic source models with the integration and correlation of a number of disciplines in an interdisciplinar and multidisciplinar approach. To characterize the seismic sources we will use geological, geochemical, geotechnical, geodetic and geophysical data in addition to the development of numerical modelling and data analyses through machine-learning techniques. The numerical modelling will allow us to get insight into the complex, nonlinear, relations between the faults of the system, but also including external geological processes and tectonics in the long term evolution of fault systems.

These seismic source models are the basis for the development of new seismic and tsunami hazard and risk assessment studies, whose results will be essential to establish new proposals for improving urban resilience. The SHaKER project will help to estimate the faults seismic cycle and transient behaviours and characterize those seismogenic sources, including their kinematics and mechanical properties. These data will help us to quantitatively assess the sensitivity to uncertainties, thus contributing to reach the UN SDG11 in terms of the improved assessment of seismic risk, making the cities more inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. In concordance with this aim we will develop also better assessments of earthquake triggered slope instabilities, earthquake surface ruptures and liquefaction.

We will continue the studies carried out in previous projects in two seismically active and densely populated zones, with different tectonic behaviours and transcurrent faults of special interest: the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ) and the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). The EBSZ is one of the areas with the highest seismicity in the Iberian Peninsula where the largest populations (Lorca, Totana, Alhama de Murcia) are located directly above the fault traces. The need for a detailed study of the behaviour and geological history of these faults became evident after the 2011 Lorca earthquake, moderate magnitude event that caused important damage. The ESFZ is a system of strike-slip faults with significant seismic activity and a medium to high deformation rate, aligned within the volcanic arc, where a large part of the country’s population is concentrated. In this case, we will try to improve the knowledge of the ESFZ in the less studied areas, expanding our study to the Nicaraguan and Guatemalan volcanic arcs (including the Jalpatagua fault).

The SHaKER project will be backed by a multidisciplinary research team made up of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, mathematicians, civil engineers and geomatics engineers. This guarantees the integration and correlation of diverse data sources, as well as the establishment of different approaches to assess the seismic hazard and its relationship and influence on the seismic risk and future urban planning. The results of the project will help to reinforce the resilience of cities in terms of seismic risk, generating products and tools that will be useful for public institutions and decision-makers, who work in emergency planning before de disaster.

Top 5 New Year’s resolutions for 2022

January is the month for New Year’s resolutions.

The Fault2SHA Ex-Com, during its first meeting of 2022, selected this TOP 5 ones.

If you like them, pleas put a like on this post, and stay tuned.

If you do not like them, please, let us know, and suggest your ones!

  1. Organize new Fault2SHA Workshops (LIVE)
  2. Establish other Laboratories
  3. Continue the Learning Series
  4. Strenghten the communities (with a new Jammin’ Series)
  5. Update the website (and social channel too)

The Fault2SHA Ex-Com would like to

  • welcome José Antonio Álvarez Gómez as a new member. His broad interests in many of the topics discussed within Fault2SHA will certainly enhance the link between fault data provider and fault data modelers.
  • thank Julián García-Mayordomo who has decided to leave the Ex-Com. Julian has been an active member of the Fault2sha Ex-Com since the creation of the Working Group. He will remain a very active member of the working group, in particular with our Colombian collegues. We wish him all the best for the future.

New Project funded: NSOURCES (2021-2025)

We are excited to announce that a new project based on the Fault2SHA approach has been funded, led by two of the fault2sha members and involving mostly researchers of the Eastern Betics fautl2SHA-lab (but not only!).

Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-119772RB-I00)

Project Title: NSOURCES: New approaches to earthquake source characterization and their effective integration into fault-based seismic hazard models. Case studies in areas of low-to-intermediate activity of eastern Iberia 

IPs: Raimon Pallàs and Eulàlia Masana (Univ. of Barcelona)

Main Partners: From Spain: Universidad Complutense de Madrid; IGME; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Centro Tecnológico del Mármol, Piedra y Materiales; ICGC; Centro Nacional de Investigación en Evolución Humana (CENIEH); SOLDATA IBERIA S.A.; Abroad: IRSN and Univ. of Montpellier (France); Univ. degli Studi G. d’Annunzio-Chieti-Pescara (Italy), UNAM (Mexico); San Diego State University (USA), Helmholtz Institute (Germany); Univ. of Manchester (UK)

The Eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is one of the most seismically active areas in Europe. Although at a smaller rate compared with other active settings, highly damaging earthquakes also occur in Western Europe, where large uncertainties in seismic hazard combine with low societal awareness to result in increased seismic risk. In Eastern Iberia, some of the seismogenic sources remain poorly studied. This is often due to the subtle expression of active slow faults, especially those located in highly erosive environments or not associated to large nor active fluvial drainages. 

In this project, seismic hazard assessment of Eastern Iberia aims to be improved by incorporating new and more precise data on the source seismic parameters of three study areas; the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), High Pyrenees (HP) and the Baix Ebre basin (BEB). The main targets are the Maladeta-Bedous fault system (in the HP), the Palomares fault (in the EBSZ) and the Baix Ebre fault (in the BEB), among others. The improved characterization of their seismic parameters will be achieved with a paleoseismological approach enhanced with new tools in geochronology, geodesy and geophysics, that include i) accurate fault slip-transects and refined fault mapping using LiDAR data, photogrammetry and field work; ii) combination of chronological tools as Schmid hammer, cosmogenic isotopes and violet stimulated luminescence that will sum up with more classical methods; iii) refined location of the paleoseismic event horizons with the use of hyperspectral images; iv) obtention of new geodetic (GPS and CGPS) and InSAR data; v) geophysical characterization of the fault geometry by a joint interpretation approach (Reflection Seismics, Magnetotellurics, Electrical Tomography and GPR). 

As a final aim, all the new information on source parameters will serve to perform new probabilistic seismic hazard calculations (fault-system approach in the EBSZ and single-faults in the HP and BEB). Along with this new fault-based PSHA results, educational and information strategies will be undertaken to increase the local population awareness on seismic hazard. The project will make possible the training of young researchers with the implementation and testing of new tools on active tectonics as well as fault-based seismic hazard analysis. 

Pisa workshop “Hands-on fault-based PSHA: data and approaches to build models”

The workshop in Pisa (IT) “Hands-on fault-based PSHA: data and approaches to build models” is over. For many of us it was the first in-presence meeting after a long period of restrictions due to COVID-19.We hope it could represent the first of many other opportunities, for this enlarged community! We thank all the speakers, participants, INGV and Italian Civil Protection Department for the chance given both of discussing scientific topics and sharing technical issues. The Fault2SHA EXCOM believes it is time to think and organise the 6th Fault2SHA meeting, isn’t it? 
You will be asked soon to choose about two options that seems to be feasible for next Spring, in 2022. Your vote will drive the choice, then ……..stay tuned!

37th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission

We would like to invite you to submit an abstract to the session “S14: Imaging and modeling 3D fault complexities in FAULT2SHA” at the 37th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission.The ESC will be held virtually on 19-24 September 2021. (https://www.erasmus.gr/microsites/1193).
The deadline for the abstracts submission is on April 19, 2021.

The form for abstract submission is available at the following link:
https://www.erasmus.gr/microsites/1193/abstract-submission

S14: Imaging and modeling 3D fault complexities in FAULT2SHADefining the 3D geometries of faults and their structural and rheological complexities not only presents challenges for field geologists, but also for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). Roughness of the fault plane, friction, asperities and bends constitute primary controlling parameters in physics based earthquake rupture models. Advanced seismic-cycle and earthquake rupture simulations incorporating these variables in 3D models have shown the occurrence of complex earthquake ruptures. Meanwhile, structural and field geologists are analyzing data at micro- and macro-scales, revealing that microscale observables can influence earthquake ruptures, or that, for example, strain partitioning, propagation of earthquake rupture or the seismic/creeping behavior can be influenced by steps, bends, gaps and barriers within and between faults. Modeling the 3D geometry incorporating the variability of these fault parameters along-strike and down-dip is the new frontier that earthquake scientists are beginning to explore, and a key scientific target of the Fault2SHA community. Finally, as the assessment of seismic hazard is ultimately concerned with the expected ground motion, to what extent are empirical ground motion prediction equations and physics-based ground motion simulations capable of capturing these complexities? This session welcomes contributions from: (i) earthquake geologists, seismologists and structural geologists exploring fault geometry and behavior, including detailed imaging of fault properties along-strike and down-dip; (ii) simulations of complex ruptures and earthquake recurrence through dynamic and multi-cycle simulations; (iii) incorporation of characteristic of 3D fault based ruptures into SHA; (iv) and ground motion modelers (empirical and physics-based) investigating the influence of such complex micro- and macroscale 3D complexities.

Conveners: Francesco Visini, Bruno Pace, Laura Peruzza, Oona Scotti and Graeme Weatheril

Late-Breaking session at vEGU2021

Please, consider to submit your contributions to the brand-new session:

The Dec. 2020 earthquake sequence in Petrinja, Croatia, and its seismotectonic and geodynamic environments 

https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU21/session/41372

The conveners ask the interested presenters to contact them ASAP with  potential title and author list. Abstracts to be sent before the Feb 28th. The EGU organizing committee will then register them on the EGU website.

A first week of field survey after the Petrinja earthquake (Croatia) confirms surface rupturing

On December 29, 2020, an earthquake of magnitude Mw 6.4 shook the region of Petrinja in northern Croatia, 45 km south of Zagreb.

Considering the high magnitude of the earthquake and the potential occurrence of coseismic deformations over large areas, we contacted our Croatian colleagues from the Geological Institute of Croatia (HGI) to participate in the field investigations and establish the first bases for scientific collaboration. After several on-line meetings, the « EU team » planned a first series of field surveys, despite the sanitary crisis and the cold winter, in order to collect the data before their erosion.

The first week of geological surveys, focused on the surface fracture, has just ended. A second will begin and will develop the recognition of the liquefaction features, numerous in this particularly humid zone of the Kupa river catchment, a tributary of the Sava River. French (Lucilla Benedetti, Adrien Moulin, Maxime Henriquet, Stéphane Baize), Italian (Paolo Boncio, Bruno Pace, Francesco Iezzi, Alessio Testa) and Slovenian (Petra Jamšek Rupnik, Matevž Novak, Rok Brajkovič, Jure Atanackov, Bogomir Celarc, Ana Novak) geologists therefore joined the Croatian colleagues in the field (Branko Kordić, Matija Vukovski, Marko Budić, Marko Špelić, Nikola Belić), to complete the mapping of the rupture already largely advanced by the Croatian colleagues alone. This dataset will enrich the existing database of surface ruptures (SURE ; Baize et al., 2019).

The mapping program was regularly coordinated between the various partners who split into several groups every day. This collective work made it possible to confirm the existence of a rupture of moderate dimension for such an earthquake, with a rupture length of several km and maximum offsets of 15-20 cm, to discuss in the field and to think about future joint actions to improve knowledge of the seismogenic potential of the Pokupsko / Petrinja fault and associated structures, which are still largely unknown and which threaten this populated region of the territory. STAY TUNED!

Fault2SHA Learning Series: first lecture

Cosmogenic nuclides as a tool to constrain rates of deformation

Lucilla Benedetti, CEREGE-CNRS, Aix en Provence, France

11th January 2021 15:00 Central European Time

The use of cosmogenic nuclides has revolutionized the quantification of fault motion by filling a critical gap between short-term geodetically recorded slip-rates and geological-long term- slip rates. In this lecture I will present 1-the important aspects to be understood when dealing with cosmogenic nuclides from sampling strategy to getting exposure ages, 2-several applications such as the use of depth profiles to date the emplacement of morphological surfaces, fault scarp dating to unravel past seismic events, relief building and denudation rates, and a novel application on triangular facet to assess normal fault slip-rates.

Click here for Zoom Link for session

Drop, cover and hold

It is probably the most commonly used safety instruction during an earthquake. After this difficult year, we propose you an alternative view: DROP on your favourite sofa, COVER your legs with a warm blanket, and HOLD, till the Rt Covid-19 is well below 0.8, in your country.

Thanks to the participants to the 5th Workshop, the Fault2SHA community is growing, and the program of activities for the new year is growing as well. Stay tuned, stay safe…

Accelerogram at Ambiesta Dam, during the 1976 May 6 Friuli earthquake (courtesy A. Saraò)

“All Hands on deck” Workshop

Last day of the 5th Fault2SHA Workshop, last chance in 2020 to join Fault2SHA members and supporters at a Fault2SHA event.

Wednesday 2nd December 14:30 – 16:30 (CET): Open Discussion – What next for Fault2SHA: New laboratories and research themes

The two hours of discussion will address the following topics, which emerged during the previous two days of the Workshop:

  1. Paleoseismology: how to handle data and identify interpretations
  2. Faults with no slip-rate data: how to handle them
  3. New Fault2SHA Labs: proposals

Your participation is encouraged – ask questions and join the discussion.

For registered users only (link in the event).